What is this sequence about?
This learning sequence aims to develop students' capacity to understand Time. Time is a complex topic and is different from other attributes of Measurement. Although Time cannot be seen or felt, it is important to understand that Time is measured. We perceive time as series of events in a sequence, separated by durations of various lengths. Our experience is not limited to a single series of events, but we experience a plurality of overlapping events, sequences, and durations. An awareness of the passage of Time is an essential ingredient in understanding Time.
This sequence is based on the work of Margaret Thomas. She identifies four major components of time: awareness, succession, duration, and measurement of time. The stages of this lesson sequence are based on these four concepts.
Big understandings Time can be thought of as the duration of an event from its beginning to its end. The duration of events can be ordered, with the knowledge that some events may also overlap. The units that we use to measure time have been created based on the movement of earth in space. Time is measured using clocks and calendars. A clock measures the duration of the rotation of the Earth on its axis and the calendar measures the duration of the revolution of the Earth around the Sun. 
The sequence has been written by teachers for teachers. It has been designed to provide students with rich, engaging learning experiences that address the Victorian Curriculum. The sequence consists of four flexible stages, including suggested learning intentions.
There is a strong focus within this sequence on supporting students to develop the four mathematical proficiencies set out in the curriculum: Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning, as well as their capacity for critical and creative thinking.
Overview of stages
1. Awareness of Time
Suggested Learning Intentions
 To understand that the passage of time is measured in specific units based on the movement of the Earth in space
3. Succession of Time
Suggested Learning Intentions
 To understand that two or more different events are organised sequentially, and that events can occur simultaneously
 To understand that successive events are marked by the iteration (repetition) of the duration of various units of time
2. Measurement of Time
Suggested Learning Intentions
 To understand that measuring devices measure the passage of time
 To understand the structure and operation of time measuring devices
 To understand the relationships between units of time so that time can be measured accurately
4. Duration of Time
Suggested Learning Intentions
 To understand that elapsed time is the duration of an event from its beginning to its end
 To understand that the duration of an event can be measured in unbroken units of time from the very small to the very large
Prior knowledge
Before you commence this sequence, it is suggested that you ensure your students are familiar with how to convert between units of time, tell time to the minute, and use am and pm notation to solve time problems. They also need to be able to convert between 12hour and 24hour times.
You can find support for building students’ understanding of these concepts in the Mathematics Curriculum Companion. The Teaching Context and Teaching Ideas related to content descriptions VCMMG141, VCMMG167, and VCMMG168 may be particularly useful.
Teaching strategies
The Mathematics Curriculum Companion provides teachers with content knowledge, suggested teaching and learning ideas as well as links to other resources. Resources are organised by Mathematics strands and substrands and incorporate the proficiencies: Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning. The Companion is an additional resource that you could refer to when you are planning how you might use this learning sequence in your school.
The sequence highlights opportunities to apply the High Impact Teaching Strategies (HITS), which are a component of the Victorian Teaching and Learning Model.
The sequence highlights the use of a variety of scaffolding practices to help support students in the learning process, in particular but not exhaustive to:
 Collaborating
 Guiding
 Probing
 Extending
Vocabulary
Students should be able to understand and use the following concepts and terms by the end of the learning sequence:
Sequence  Millennium 
Succession  Season 
Second  Calendar 
Minute  Analogue and Digital Clock 
Hour  am & pm 
Day  Timetable 
Week  Duration 
Month  Elapsed Time 
Year  24 Hour Time 
Century  Leap Year 
You can find definitions of some of these terms in the F10 Victorian Curriculum Mathematics Glossary.
It is recommended that the explicit teaching of vocabulary occur throughout the learning sequence. The Literacy in Mathematics section of the Literacy Teaching Toolkit provides several teaching strategies with worked examples demonstrating how teachers can use literacy to support student understanding of mathematical language. A further set of strategies demonstrate how teachers can develop students' literacy skills to support their mathematical problem solving.
Assessment
Opportunities for formative and summative assessment are identified at different stages of the learning sequence. Look for the 'Assessment Opportunity' icon.
You may want to develop a rubric to assess students’ progress. A range of Formative Assessment resources are available from the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. This includes a Guide to Formative Assessment Rubrics, a series of modules to support you to develop your own formative assessment rubrics, and sample rubrics across six curriculum areas that demonstrate how you can put formative assessment rubrics into practice in the classroom.
In developing a rubric, you may wish to coconstruct assessment criteria with your students. Each stage of the sequence provides sample success criteria for students working at Level 6.
The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority has published annotated work samples that provide teachers with examples of student learning achievement at multiple levels for each strand of the Mathematics curriculum.
Victorian Curriculum connections
Level 5
This sequence addresses content from the Victorian Curriculum in Mathematics, Critical and Creative Thinking, and Earth and Space sciences. It is primarily designed for Level 6, but also addresses the following content descriptions from Level 5:
Content description 
Stage 
Mathematics 

Compare 12 and 24hour time systems and convert between them (VCMMG197) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time 
Creative and Critical Thinking 

Investigate how ideas and problems can be disaggregated into smaller elements or ideas, how criteria can be used to identify gaps in existing knowledge, and assess and test ideas and proposals (VCCCTM031) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time Succession of Time Duration of Time 
Consider the importance of giving reasons and evidence and how the strength of these can be evaluated (VCCCTR025) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time Succession of Time Duration of Time 
Science 

Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including night and day. (VCSSU061) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time 
This sequence can be used to assess student achievement in relation to the following Achievement Standards from the Victorian Curriculum: Mathematics Level 5:
 Students convert between 12 and 24hour time.
Level 6
This sequence addresses content from the Victorian Curriculum in Mathematics and Critical and Creative Thinking. It is primarily designed for Level 6, addressing the following content descriptions from Level 6:
Content description 
Stage 
Mathematics 

Interpret and use timetables (VCMMG226) 
Measurement of Time Succession of Time Duration of Time 
Measure, calculate and compare elapsed time (VCMMG227) 
Measurement of Time Duration of Time 
Find a simple fraction of a quantity where the result is a whole number, with and without digital technologies (VCMNA213) 
Measurement of Time 
Creative and Critical Thinking 

Investigate how ideas and problems can be disaggregated into smaller elements or ideas, how criteria can be used to identify gaps in existing knowledge, and assess and test ideas and proposals (VCCCTM031) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time Succession of Time Duration of Time 
Consider the importance of giving reasons and evidence and how the strength of these can be evaluated (VCCCTR025) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time Succession of Time Duration of Time 
This sequence can be used to assess student achievement in relation to the following Achievement Standards from the Victorian Curriculum: Mathematics Level 6:
 Students choose appropriate units of measurement to perform a calculation.
 Students solve problems involving time.
 Students interpret a variety of everyday timetables.
Level 8
This sequence addresses content from the Victorian Curriculum in Mathematics and Critical and Creative Thinking. It is primarily designed for Level 6, but also addresses the following content descriptions from Level 8:
Content description 
Stage 
Mathematics 

Solve problems involving duration, including using 12 and 24hour time within a single time zone (VCMMG290) 
Measurement of Time Duration of Time 
Creative and Critical Thinking 

Consider how problems can be segmented into discrete stages, new knowledge synthesised during problemsolving, and criteria used to assess emerging ideas and proposals (VCCCTM042) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time Succession of Time Duration of Time 
Examine how to select appropriate criteria and how criteria are used in clarifying and challenging arguments and ideas (VCCCTR039) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time Succession of Time Duration of Time 
Science 

Predictable phenomena on Earth, including seasons and eclipses, are caused by the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and the Moon (VCSSU099) 
Awareness of Time Measurement of Time Succession of Time 
The sequence can be used to assess student achievement in relation to the following Achievement Standards from the Victorian Curriculum in Mathematics Level 8:
 Students make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24hour time.
Learning Progressions
The Numeracy Learning Progressions support teachers to develop a comprehensive view of how numeracy develops over time. You can use the Numeracy Learning Progressions to:
 identify the numeracy capability of your students
 plan targeted teaching strategies, especially for students achieving above or below the ageequivalent expected level in the Victorian Curriculum: Mathematics
 provide targeted feedback to students about their learning within and across the progressions.
The sequence is related to the following progressions:
Learning Progression 
Level 5  Level 6  Level 8 
Measuring time 
Units of time 
Relating units of time 
Time zones 
Click on the Learning Progression to access more detailed descriptions of student learning at each level.